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Copper-plated solar
One way that solar cell efficiency can be improved is to use copper contacts rather than silver ones, as has been done by IMEC and Kaneka in recent research - although such a major change would require very large investment by cell makers. This earlier development by IMEC researchers shows a copper-plated cell with an efficiency of 19.4%. Kaneka has since demonstrated a copper-plated heterojunction (i.e. double-sided) cell with an efficiency of 22.7%. Credit: IMEC.
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