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a: SEM image of three adjacent laser ridges; b/c: simulated gain and loss spectra in standard/bi-functional active regions.
a Scanning electron microscope image of three adjacent laser ridges. Each laser consists of a roughly 3 mm long gain section and a shorter (320–480 μm) modulation section. b Simulated gain and loss spectrum in a standard active region design depending on the applied bias. Upon decreasing the bias, the structure becomes almost transparent at the lasing wavelength λL, limiting the maximally achievable modulation depth. c Simulated gain and loss spectrum in a bi-functional active region design, allowing to tune the gain at 10V continuously to absorption (shown as negative gain) at 0 V.
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