21 Feb 2019
Scientists from EPFL have developed a simple way to produce metasurfaces in just a few minutes at low temperatures.
The metasurfaces contain regularly spaced nanoparticles that can modulate electromagnetic waves over sub-micrometer wavelength scales.
These materials could enable engineers to make flexible photonic circuits and ultra-thin optics for a host of applications, ranging from flexible tablet computers to solar panels with enhanced light-absorption characteristics.
They could also be used to create flexible sensors to be placed directly on a patient’s skin, for example, in order to measure things like pulse and blood pressure or to detect specific chemical compounds.
The catch is that creating metasurfaces using the conventional method, lithography, is a fastidious, several-hour-long process that must be done in a clean room. Now engineers from EFPL's Laboratory of Photonic Materials and Fiber Devices (FIMAP) have developed a simple method for making them in just a few minutes at low temperatures – or even at room temperature – with no need for a clean room.
The EPFL's School of Engineering method produces dielectric glass metasurfaces that can be either rigid or flexible. The work has just been described in Nature Nanotechnology.
Weakness becomes strength
The new method employs a natural process already used in fluid mechanics: dewetting. This occurs when a thin film of material is deposited on a substrate and then heated. The heat causes the film to retract and break apart into tiny nanoparticles. “Dewetting is seen as a problem in manufacturing – but we decided to use it to our advantage,” says Fabien Sorin, the study’s lead author and the head of FIMAP.
To construct these metasurfaces, the engineers first created a substrate textured with the desired architecture. Then they deposited a material – in this case, chalcogenide glass – in thin films just tens of nanometers thick. The substrate was subsequently heated for a couple of minutes until the glass became more fluid and nanoparticles began to form in the sizes and positions dictated by the substrate texture.
The engineers’ method is so efficient that it can produce highly sophisticated metasurfaces with several levels of nanoparticles or with arrays of nanoparticles spaced 10 nm apart. That makes the metasurfaces highly sensitive to changes in ambient conditions – such as to detect the presence of even very low concentrations of bioparticles.
“This is the first time dewetting has been used to create glass metasurfaces. The advantage is that our metasurfaces are smooth and regular, and can be easily produced on large surfaces and flexible substrates,” commented Sorin.